Correlation between preoperative vein and artery diameters and arteriovenous fistula outcome in patients with end-stage renal disease
Background and aims: Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation failure rates remain high in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although preoperative morphological and functional assessment of blood vessels by duplex ultrasonography (DUS) has been shown to improve AVF maturation, there is no consensus regarding the optimal vein (VD) and artery (AD) diameters to be universally used for AVF creation. To improve patient selection, set out to investigate if there is a correlation between preoperative VD/AD and clinical covariates, and postoperative AVF outcome.
Methods: This was a prospective cohort study conducted during January–August 2014. ESRD patients referred to “Niculae Stăncioiu” Heart Institute Cluj-Napoca, who had a VD ≥1.9 mm and AD ≥1.5 mm, as measured by DUS, and underwent AVF creation were enrolled. We assessed whether preoperative VD/AD and clinical covariates were associated with AVF maturation rate and primary patency at 2 years after AVF creation.
Results: Of 115 patients referred for AVF creation, 93 were included in the study. Mean (± standard deviation) VD was 3.3 ± 1.1 mm and VDs were distributed in quartile Q1 <2.55 mm, Q2: 2.56-3.10 mm, Q3: 3.11-3.70 mm and Q4: >3.71 mm. Mean AD was 3.3 ± 1.4 mm and ADs were distributed in Q1 <2.55 mm, Q2: 2.56-3.10 mm, Q3: 3.11-3.70 mm, and Q4, >3.71 mm. AVF maturation rate increased proportionally with VD from Q1 (62%) to Q2 (70%), Q3 (82%) to Q4 (96%) (p=0.03). Based on AD, a higher AVF maturation rate was observed in Q3 (86%), Q4 (83%) vs Q1 (71%) and Q2 (67%). Long-term primary patency of AVFs seemed not to be influenced by VD and AD. In older patients and those with peripheral arterial disease, AVF maturation failure tended to be higher.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a preoperative VD ≥1.9 mm and AD ≥1.5 mm have a successful maturation rate of AVF greater than 60% in ESRD patients. The maturation rate of surgical AVF increases proportionally with the size of VD used for AVF creation.