Giomers in dentistry – at the boundary between dental composites and glass-ionomers
Introduction. From the variety of direct restorative dental materials, composite resins are considered as having the most esthetic and functional properties. The conservative preparation, esthetic results, good mechanical qualities and surface finishing properties of dental composites, combined with the protective properties of fluoride from glass-ionomers, led to a new generation of dental materials: the giomers.
Objective. The purpose is to review the available literature about the giomers, regarding the chemical composition, handling properties and esthetics, adhesion and microleakage, fluoride releasing and protection offered, clinical indications.
Method. The search was carried out using ScienceDirect and PubMed databases with the following keywords: giomer, esthetic properties giomers and fluoride releasing giomers. A total of 232 articles were initially selected, with the following inclusion criteria: full text articles, written in English, with topics on the properties and the clinical implications of giomers. Papers presented as abstract were not included. In the next step, review articles, duplicates, and articles in other languages were removed; as a result, a total of 44 sources published between 2004 and 2017 were selected.
Results. The selected articles referred to the following aspects about the giomers: chemical composition (8 articles), adhesion and microleakage (10 articles), fluoride releasing and pulp protection (15 articles), clinical indications (6 articles), effects of additional treatments and dietary habits (11 articles).