Introduction. The pineal gland is a photo-neuro-endocrine organ situated inside the brain, that secretes serotonin, melatonin and N,N-dymethyltriptamine. This narrative review will address the latest information gathered on this function of the gland as well as the unknown roles it may have. The different histological and pathological findings of the pineal gland have demonstrated a role in clinical manifestations of numerous endocrine, neurological and psychiatric pathologies.

Materials. For this narrative review we used the NCBI website database PubMed. The search terms were “Pineal Gland” AND/OR “histology, melatonin, DMT, pathology”. Total number of articles included were 86.

Results: We have reviewed physiological information of melatonin and DMT, anatomical, histological and histopathological information on the pineal gland and its role in endocrine, neurological and psychiatric pathology.

Conclusion. The role of melatonin in immunity and its potential therapeutic effects show promising potential for further research. DMT seems to have a role in psychiatric pathology and potential therapeutic effects. Proper tumoral screening and diagnostic protocol are required.


pineal gland, melatonin, calcifications, histology, pathology