Background. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and patterns of styloid process elongation in a general Lebanese population sample.

Methods. Digital panoramic radiographs of 489 Lebanese adults (218 males and 271 females, mean age of 47.56 ± 16.149) were included in this retrospective study. First, we screened for detection of elongated styloid process, then we analyzed these cases and classified the elongation types. Data obtained were transformed into SPSS v24 and descriptive and inferential analyses were done. 

Results. In our sample, elongated styloid process was seen in 76 cases (15.5%) (45/271 women and 31/218 men). Despite no significant gender predisposition, females were slightly more affected than males (59.2% females to 40.8% males). As for the age, elongation was significantly more likely to be present at 45-64 years of age. The right side was slightly more affected than the left side (86.8% vs. 76.3% respectively), with type 1 elongation as the most common. Nevertheless, bilateral elongation was much more common than unilateral elongation (63.2%).

Interestingly, females were more likely to suffer from bilateral elongation (64.58%) compared to men (35.41%).

Conclusion. Elongated styloid process represents a common finding detected fortuitously on panoramic radiographs. Therefore, being a main feature in Eagle syndrome, dentists should be aware of this clinical entity and actively screen for it.


elongated styloid process syndrome, Lebanon, Eagle syndrome, panoramic radiography