Tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) represent the main cause of death through solid tumors in children and the second most frequent neoplasm in this patient group. The poor survival rate is due to many factors, such as the large diversity of morphological features, the particular micro-environmental characteristics of the nervous tissue, the relative rareness in relation to other childhood diseases, which leads to late diagnosis and the limited effectiveness of the available treatment options. Up until 2016, brain tumors were classified according to their histologic features. The new 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of CNS tumors incorporates molecular features, alongside the immunohistology, in order to provide a more accurate understanding of the disease. The treatment consists of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. We decided to review the literature on this pathology, in order to show the importance of the recent discoveries in this field.


brain tumors, children, molecular diagnosis, prognosis, treatment