Impact of self-esteem on the relationship between orthodontic treatment and the oral health-related quality of life in patients after orthodontic treatment – a systematic review
Objective. The treatment protocol in the modern health care paradigm has shifted considerably towards enhancing the quality of life in the last decade. This is particularly important in cosmetic and elective treatments, and hence the interest in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) also has increased. OHRQoL always been measured by endogenous, functional, social, or psychological determinants. Self-esteem (SE) is one of the internal factors that affect the perception of malocclusion and hence OHRQoL before and after treatment. The purpose of this review is to assess whether there exists any correlation between the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life, Self-esteem (SE) in patients following orthodontic treatment.
Methods. A literature search was confined to the English language using Medical Subject Heading terms (MeSH) in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Ovid® covering the period from January 1, 1951 to May 15, 2020. Search in Google Scholar, grey literature, and hand search on cross-references was performed to find additional data. The studies found to be suitable were selected based on the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of assessment and risk of bias for the included studies were evaluated independently by two invigilators utilizing “The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing the risk of bias” and “Modified version of the Newcastle Ottawa scale” for Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and non-randomized trials respectively.
Results. A total of 7688 studies were retrieved from all the sources. After screening all the titles and excluding the duplicates, 28 studies were finally included for text review, and all of them were fit for quality appraisal. The design of the final studies included comprised of 3 RCTs, 14 cohort studies, 9 cross-sectional studies, and 2 case-control studies.
Conclusion. There is moderate evidence to show that fixed orthodontic treatment improves OHRQoL and SE in children. OHRQoL also increased in adolescents and adults. However, there is a weak correlation between SE and OHRQoL. More evidence-based studies are needed to analyze the relationship.