The impact of diabetes mellitus on the anti-tuberculous treatment outcome: a series of cases from the Republic of Moldova
Background and aims. The Republic of Moldova ranks among the European Region countries with the highest global incidence of tuberculosis. Almost 5% of the cases with pulmonary TB had been diagnosed with DM in 2017. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of diabetes mellitus on the anti-tuberculosis treatment effectiveness for the improvement of the disease outcome.
Methods. A retrospective, longitudinal and case-control study, which included a total number of 252 patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis and distributed into a study group of 93 patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus and a control group of 159 patients without glycemic disorders was performed. The statistical analysis was performed using EpiInfo software. The statistical analysis of the differences between normally distributed continuous variables was tested with the Student T-test.
Results. Based on the collected data we established that the majority of the patients with glycemic disorders were diagnosed with the type 2 diabetes, associated with hyperglycemia and in half of them complications of diabetes were revealed. The age older 55 years and the low economical state were common characteristics of the diabetic patients. Tuberculosis was detected in every second diabetic patient through the radiological screening compared with the passive detection of most of the non-diabetic patients. The anti-tuberculosis treatment outcome was endangered by a higher rate of the adverse drug events in patients with diabetes, which contributed to death in 15%, lost to follow-up 7%, and therapeutic failure in 6%.
Conclusions. The anti-tuberculous treatment outcome in patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus was significantly diminished by glycemic disorders, history of the previous anti-tuberculous treatment and adverse drug reactions. Individualized therapeutic approach to tuberculosis could improve the treatment effectiveness.