Identification of factors affecting outcomes in patients with Guillain Barre syndrome
Background. Guillain Barre syndrome (GBS) is a rare autoimmune neurological disorder resulting in variable clinical course and outcome. Various factors such as age, symptoms and disease form that influence the outcome of GBS have been previously studied.
Aim. This study aimed at identifying factors affecting the outcomes in patients with GBS.
Methods. A retrospective observational study was conducted on GBS (ICD-G61.0) patients admitted to the hospital between 2014 and 2019. Patient information on demographics, medical and medication history, laboratory parameters, electrophysiological data, type of GBS and therapy received were retrieved from medical records. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted to identify factors associated with outcome (improved and not improved) and calculate odds ratio (OR).
Results. A total of 212 GBS patients were included in the study, of which 67% were males and the mean age was 39.9±20.1 years. 168 (79%) patients showed improvement whereas the remaining 44(21%) did not show improvement. Patients with hypertension (OR=4.512; CI=1.309-15.556, p=0.017), alcoholics (OR=5.148; CI=1.234-21.472, p=0.025), sepsis (OR= 9.139; CI=1.102-75.760, p=0.040) and cardiac arrest (OR=17.495; CI=1.249-245.027, p=0.034) were associated with risk of no improvement. Whereas those treated with IVIgG plus Physiotherapy/Occupational therapy (OR=0.062; CI=0.016-0.242, p=0.001) and Plasmapheresis plus Physiotherapy/Occupational therapy (OR=0.007; CI=0.000- 0.147, p=0.001) were associated with improvement.
Conclusion. Understanding these factors help to further give a more directed and focused management to improve the condition in patients who are at risk of poor outcome. Further follow-up studies could be done to determine and manage the residual disabilities associated with GBS to improve patient’s quality of life.