Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with the impairment of the incretin effect. Evidence has revealed that bile acids are involved in glucose homeostasis. Bariatric surgery, referred also as metabolic surgery, exerts beyond weight loss an important metabolic effect by inducing amelioration or remission of type 2 diabetes. Surgical procedures that involve rearrangements of the gastrointestinal tract and therefore rerouting of the food such as laparoscopic Roux en Y gastric by pass (LRYGB), induce an increase in glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels and of bile acids, which will both promote an early improvement of glycemic control. Emerging data have revealed that there might be an interplay between GLP-1 and bile acids regarding glycemic control, raising the question about considering bile acids as the new gut hormones.


obesity, type 2 diabetes, incretins, bile acids, bariatric surgery