Dental occlusion characteristics in subjects with bruxism
Background and aims. Bruxism is associated with a variety of factors, some of which are oral (occlusion, joint, face shape) while others are of a systemic nature (respiratory, cardiac, neurotransmitters, stress). The relationship between bruxism and occlusion has received great attention, but it still has a lot of ambiguity. This study aimed at investigating the parameters that may affect bruxism: dental interferences or premature contacts, vicious habits, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain, TMJ noises, TMJ morning fatigue, snoring, obstructive sleep apnea, which may occur before bruxism, or because of chronic parafunction.
Methods. We conducted an observational, analytical case-control study to determine the association between bruxism and oral cavity factors as well as general factors. Participants were chosen from a group of middle-aged Romanian population. An online questionnaire was used for data collection. A total of one hundred subjects were included in the sample. Fifty cases with bruxism were chosen as a study group, and another fifty persons of similar ages were chosen as a control group. Statistical analysis was performed using the MedCalc version 20.110 software.
Results. The study comprised subjects between 18 and 42 years old. The most prevalent age range was between 20-25 years. The female-male ratio was almost similar; 62% of the participants had sleep bruxism, 10% had awake bruxism and 28% had a combined form. The arithmetic means of the daily stress levels for both research groups’ scores were 3.0 for the bruxism group and 3.24 for the control group, while the work stress was 3.04 for the bruxism group and 3.41 for the control group. Dental interferences or premature contacts, vicious habits, TMJ pain, TMJ noises, TMJ morning fatigue, snoring, and obstructive sleep apnea were evaluated. The majority of subjects received an oral splint (n=26).
Conclusions. Bruxism was associated with stress, occlusal parameters (premature contacts and occlusion interferences), and joint pathologies. Bruxism was not found to be positively correlated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. There was a moderately significant association between bruxism and snoring. There was no evidence of an association between bruxism and vicious habits, dental aesthetics, or obstructive sleep apnea. Treatment significantly improved the quality of life, the masticatory and joint functions.