Due to their physical proximity, the healthy pancreas and the gut microbiome are known to interact in a variety of ways. The gut microbiota has been recognized as a potential factor in the development and progression of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency through several mechanisms. Pancreatic diseases like chronic and acute pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer are frequently accompanied by pancreatic exocrine insufficiency which affects the gut microbiota. Firstly, the gut microbes are controlled by antimicrobial pancreatic secretions, while themselves induce the secretion of substances by the pancreas through metabolite production, such as short chain fatty acids. Secondly, dysbiosis, the alteration in the abundance and diversity of different species, has been observed in patients with pancreatic diseases. Dysbiosis influences carcinogenesis in pancreatic cancer in ways that are either procarcinogenic or anticarcinogenic and finding these connections will have clinical implications. Identifying microbial biomarkers allow for an earlier diagnosis, improved therapy and prognosis in pancreatic cancer. The gut microbiome has a role in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis by either a bacterial translocation or a host immune response mechanism. The disruption of the normal gut barrier is believed to be the primary source of bacteria in acute pancreatitis which leads to infected pancreatic necrosis.

In this paper, we review the current data about the association between pancreatic diseases linked to exocrine insufficiency and gut microbiota.


gut microbiota, dysbiosis, pancreas, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma