Background and aims. This study aimed at evaluating the etiology and treatment challenges of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs).

Methods. 160 subjects with TMDs, 38 males (23.8%) and 122 females (76.3%) were studied. A personalized coefficient was designated, which included the resolution of the main symptom, correction of secondary symptoms, patient collaboration (emotional parameter), treatment duration, and cost.

Results. The most frequent cause for consultation was muscle impairment (42.5%), or limitation of mouth opening, followed by joint impairment (23.1%). Muscle pain was noticed, particularly in the masseter (57.5%) and lateral pterygoid muscles (51.9%). Tooth pain or gingival retraction was frequently associated with tooth wear (48.1%) and dental abfraction (31.3%). Remote symptomatology was dominated by otologic symptomatology. Iatrogenic etiology was highest (69.4%), followed by untreated missing teeth (66.9%). Treatment options included muscle relaxation, occlusal balancing (equilibration), kinesitherapy, medication, and swallowing re-education. Most patients benefited from four to seven different types of therapy, which resulted in a higher cost and a longer and more uncomfortable treatment. The primary symptom was relieved in 82.3% of cases, with recurrence occurring in 15.7%.

Conclusion. The treatment of temporomandibular joint dysfunction is time-consuming, demanding, and intricate. Most patients required four to seven different types of therapy, which increased the expense, treatment duration, and suffering.




temporomandibular joint disorder, myalgia, jaw, pain, occlusion