Introduction. The bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw was first referred to in 2003. Bisphosphonates action is focused on the osteoclasts. The drastic inhibition of the osteoclastic function is harmful for the jaws which are the only bones of the human skeleton in relative contact with the external environment. The adverse effects of the bisphosphonate-related therapy include the pathology for which they are prescribed, the atypical fractures in pathological bone.

Method. The aim of this research was to analyze the risk factors and the treatment methods in case of osteonecrosis of the jaws. To achieve these goals, the author analyzed the observation sheets of the patients admitted to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic during the period 2010-2015. The inclusion criteria were as follows: treatment with bisphosphonates, current or previous; the lesions of the mucous gingiva of the maxillaries followed by exposed necrotic bone, older than 8 weeks, with no tendency of healing; specific radiological image showing extended osteolysis with diffuse outline or radiopacity surrounded by radio-transparence, representing the necrotic bone sequestered; no metastasis in the necrotic maxillary bone; patient with no medical background of cervical-facial radiations. The patients who met these criteria were admitted in the study after signing the informed consent. Afterwards, the information found in the notes of the observational sheet (anamnesis, general examination and the imagistic investigation, treatment, postoperative recovery, prescription, postoperative recommendations) were gathered and submitted for statistic analysis

Results. Of the 20 patients in total, 13 were women and 7 men, of ages ranging from 43 to 83. The most numerous cases were registered in the seventh age decade. All patients included in the study had lesions of the gingival maxillary mucosal areas with exposure of the subjacent necrotic bone. 60% of them were under intravenous treatment with zoledronic acid (Zometa®). A single patient was under oral treatment with bisphosphonates. 19 of these 20 patients developed osteonecrosis following a dental extraction while one case was due to the instability of the mandibular mobile prosthesis. 61% of the patients included in the study developed a necrotic process in the mandibular bone, 80% of the localizations were in the posterior area. As first intention, the choice of treatment was represented by local lavages with antiseptic solutions, general antibiotics and sequestrectomy. Of these patients, a third had relapsed and needed radical surgery treatment.

Conclusions. Prevention of the bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw represents the best method of treatment. The development of bone sequesters damages the volume of the maxillary bone as such, reducing the chances for prosthetic functional rehabilitation of the dento-maxillary system. An increase in the quality of life by oral restoration of these patients may represent a challenge.


Bisphosphonaterelated osteonecrosis of the jaw, pathologic bone fracture, osteoclast, osteonecrosis, osteoporosis