Objective. Cardiovascular diseases generate the highest mortality in the globe population, mainly due to coronary artery disease (CAD) like arrhythmia, myocardial infarction and heart failure. Therefore, an early identification of CAD and diagnosis is essential. For this, we have proposed a new approach to detect the CAD patients using heart rate variability (HRV) signals. This approach is based on subspaces decomposition of HRV signals using multiscale wavelet packet (MSWP) transform and entropy features extracted from decomposed HRV signals. The detection performance was analyzed using Fisher ranking method, generalized discriminant analysis (GDA) and binary classifier as extreme learning machine (ELM). The ranking strategies designate rank to the available features extracted by entropy methods from decomposed heart rate variability (HRV) signals and organize them according to their clinical importance. The GDA diminishes the dimension of ranked features. In addition, it can enhance the classification accuracy by picking the best discerning of ranked features. The main advantage of ELM is that the hidden layer does not require tuning and it also has a fast rate of detection.

Methodology. For the detection of CAD patients, the HRV data of healthy normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and CAD patients were obtained fromĀ  a standard database. Self recorded data as normal sinus rhythm (Self_NSR) of healthy subjects were also used in this work. Initially, the HRV time-series was decomposed to 4 levels using MSWP transform. Sixty two features were extracted from decomposed HRV signals by non-linear methods for HRV analysis, fuzzy entropy (FZE) and Kraskov nearest neighbour entropy (K-NNE). Out of sixty-two features, 31 entropy features were extracted by FZE and 31 entropy features were extracted by K-NNE method. These features were selected since every feature has a different physical premise and in this manner concentrates and uses HRV signals information in an assorted technique. Out of 62 features, top ten features were selected, ranked by a ranking method called as Fisher score. The top ten features were applied to the proposed model, GDA with Gaussian or RBF kernal + ELM having hidden node as sigmoid or multiquadric. The GDA method transforms top ten features to only one feature and ELM has been used for classification.

Results. Numerical experimentations were performed on the combination of datasets as NSR-CAD and Self_NSR- CAD subjects. The proposed approach has shown better performance using top ten ranked entropy features. The GDA with RBF kernel + ELM having hidden node as multiquadric method and GDA with Gaussian kernel + ELM having hidden node as sigmoid or multiquadric method achieved an approximate detection accuracy of 100% compared to ELM and linear discriminant analysis (LDA)+ELM for both datasets. The subspaces level-4 and level-3 decomposition of HRV signals by MSWP transform can be used for detection and analysis of CAD patients.


multiscale wavelet packet (MSWP) transform, fuzzy entropy (FZE), Kraskov nearest neighbour entropy (K-NNE), generalized discriminant analysis (GDA), extreme learning machine (ELM)