Background and aims. To evaluate the staining effects of two brands of coffee and the bleaching efficiency of two in-office bleaching methods, upon different opacities of a commercial nanocomposite.

Methods. Twenty four specimens of each opacity, A3 Dentin, A3 Body and A3 Enamel, were fabricated from Filtek Supreme (3MEspe). The specimens were further divided into two groups (n=12) and were immersed in two coffee solutions (Bio Organic Coffee Bellarom, 100% Arabica, and Iulius Meinl Coffee), for 24 hours. Between the staining sessions, the specimens were stored in sterile water, at 37°C. Each group was further divided into three (n=4), in order to be bleached, as follows: Group 1 - Beyond 35% in office, for 4 applications of 15 minutes each, Group 2 – Zoom Day White 6% in office, for 4 applications of 15 minutes each, Group 3 – Control Group, stored in sterile water. Color values were measured with a dental spectrophotometer Vita EasyShade 4.0 and five measurements were recorded for each sample at a time. Lightness L*, color coordinates a* and b* were recorded, at baseline, after staining in coffee and after bleaching. Whiteness index (WID) of the three composite resins (A3D, A3B, A3E) in the three moments were calculated, as well as the color difference Delta E* correspondent to the staining and bleaching process. Data were analyzed using one-way repeated measures ANOVA and the WID index was calculated WID (p<0.05). Univariate analysis of variance was performed for assessing the influence of staining solution upon composite resins, as well as for testing the effect of bleaching agents. The significance level was set at α=0.05 and pairwise comparisons were adjusted by the Least Significant Difference method.

Results. The pairwise comparisons showed no significant difference between the effects of the two bleaching agents upon the WID, meaning that they induce almost similar color changes. The results of the univariate ANOVA test indicated a significant effect of the composite resin and the staining solution upon the WID (p<0.05). However, no significant interaction effect was found between the composite resin and the staining solution (p=0.095). There was a significant difference in the staining effect of the two coffee solutions only for A3B and A3E composite resins (p<0.05).

Conclusions. The chromatic changes of the nanocomposite resin could be evaluated by the variation of the whiteness index. The staining effect induced by the two types of coffee was similar. The most effective protocol was the in-office bleaching method based on Beyond 35%.


bleaching, staining, nanocomposite, color stability, whiteness index